The Mobile Trust Gap
Ojas Rege | July 16, 2013
In June 2013, we ran the MobileIron Trust Gap Survey. It was an extensive survey of 3,000 consumers across three countries – Germany, United Kingdom, and United States. It provided an understanding of the mobile privacy expectations of employees in order to develop a set of practical guidelines for employers to address privacy in a BYOD world. Since employees are the actual customers of a corporate BYOD program, these guidelines should be driven by their requirements, not just the requirements of the employer. Mobile is a partnership between employee and employer, and policies that serve the needs of only the latter cannot form the basis of a successful Mobile First initiative.
Below are highlights from the Trust Gap Survey and implications for the enterprise. Special thanks to Steve Raikow for designing the accompanying infographic.
The world has gone BYOD
Over 80% of the respondents are now using personal smartphones and tablets for work. This is a higher number than we expected, especially in Germany.
Some of these are part of official BYOD programs. However, many are, undoubtedly, rogue devices that are not part of a formal program, but are still on the corporate network accessing corporate data. This reinforces our belief at MobileIron that people absolutely want to use mobile technologies of their own choice to do their work. If the company doesn’t support their efforts to do so, they will go around IT and figure out a way to do it anyway.
Take-away: You already have a BYOD program whether or not you think you do.
The Trust Gap is big
Only 30% of the respondents say they “completely trust” their employer to keep their personal information private. On one hand, I’m surprised this number isn’t smaller and the Trust Gap isn’t bigger, because privacy is clearly in the public eye. On the other hand, people regularly expose personal data to consumer apps and services and have arguably gotten somewhat nonchalant about sharing their information.
However, though an employer already holds a substantial amount of an employee’s personal data, such as health history, criminal background checks, and family data, mobile introduces daily lifestyle information into the mix. Employees worry about this type of data being in the hands of the organization on which they depend for their livelihoods because it crosses the boundary between their personal and work lives.
Take-away: Your BYOD user agreement will satisfy Legal, but it won’t narrow the Trust Gap unless it is also written with that intent.
Employees don’t really know what their employers can see
One of the most surprising results is that 41% of employees are sure their employers can’t see anything on their mobile devices. In fact, only 28% think their employers can see even their company email, when, in fact, all company email is accessible to employers because it travels through company servers. On the other hand, 15% think their employers can see their text messages when, in fact, this is not even technically possible on platforms like iOS.
So what can employers see? The answer varies by mobile operating system and company policy, but on iOS, as an example, employers could potentially see data such as carrier, country, device make and model, OS version, phone number, location, list of installed apps, and corporate email. But, even if they wanted to, employers could not see data such as personal email, texts, photos, videos, voicemail, and web activity (unless going through the corporate network).
In the Trust Gap Survey, employees consistently underestimate the visibility their employers have into company data, and consistently overestimate the visibility their employers have into personal data.
Take-away: Your employees are operating under mistaken assumptions about what personal and work data you can see.
Personal communications are a bigger concern than location
Personal emails, text messages, and personal contacts are the three sets of data for which employees worry most about privacy. Photos, videos, and voicemails are the next three. Interestingly, location is further down the list, and more than half of the respondents say they are comfortable with their employers knowing their location.
Communications and images most accurately capture the daily life of an individual, so it is not at all surprising that these sets of information have the highest privacy risk in the eyes of the employee.
Take-away: “Privacy = personal communication” in the minds of your employees, so make sure they clearly understand your policies for this set of data.
Age has more impact than gender or geography
I expected that German employees would be more worried about privacy than their UK and US counterparts. But, as it turns out, the differences by geography are minimal. The reason might be that populations with a higher expectation of privacy have also instituted regulations to protect privacy. So they, in effect, cancel each other out, and the net impact on the Trust Gap is small.
Differences across gender are also minimal.
Differences across age, however, are significant. Employees over the age of 55 are much more comfortable with their employers having access to their personal mobile data than employees between the ages of 18-34. This applies to every type of mobile data. At first, this appears contrary to the general belief that younger people are more likely than older people to share their personal information online, so there must be a core difference between home and work environments. Perhaps, compared to younger employees, older employees have a longer history or higher level of trust with their employer, or perhaps their personal communications are just less sensitive.
Take-away: The issue of privacy has staying power and should be proactively addressed as the younger generation enters the workplace.
Employees are willing to bridge the Trust Gap
Given the significance of the Trust Gap, this is the most promising piece of data. 70% of respondents say their employers can increase their trust by taking the right actions. German respondents are the most open to this notion, with almost 80% saying the right actions would reduce the Trust Gap. The Trust Gap is large, but employees are open to bridging it.
Take-away: Proactively work with your employees to design credible responses to their privacy concerns.
Communication is the way to bridge the Trust Gap
The mitigation actions that matter most to employees center on better communication:
- Explain in detail the purpose of the employer seeing certain information
- Promise in writing that the employer will only look at work information
- Provide written notification of what the employer can and can’t see
Some of the mitigation steps respondents recommend, like #2 above, may not be feasible given the legal obligations of the corporation, but the underlying theme is still communicate. Nature abhors a vacuum and, in the absence of clear communication, employees will make assumptions about how their mobile data is being managed by their employer. Incorrect assumptions will only widen the Trust Gap. Over-communication is far preferable to under-communication.
The second benefit of an effective communication program is that it assists the employer in obtaining employees’ consent to access their mobile data. Getting the consent is a best practice and, in some circumstances, employee consent may address applicable legal issues. Employers should focus on emphasizing the organization’s ongoing actions for ensuring that the written policy is truly understood by the employee base.
Take-away: Clear and frequent communication on the why/what/how of your mobile privacy approach increases employee satisfaction and may reduce legal risk.
Conclusion: Mind the (Trust) Gap
The MobileIron Trust Gap Survey was intended to help enterprises address the privacy concerns their employees have in a BYOD world. The Survey shows that the Trust Gap is real but that effective communication can significantly decrease it. Luckily, employees are very open to partnering with IT to do so.
As with many other things in life, transparency drives trust. And trust is essential for a sustainable BYOD initiative.